Immunisation & Vaccines

Vaccines are safe, effective and important:

  • The NHS says that vaccines are the most effective way of protecting people from infectious disease and prevent up to 3 million deaths yearly.

  • Vaccines protect your community, by reducing the risk of infection to people who cannot have vaccines, and lowering the number of infections.

  • Vaccines do not cause autism, allergies or other conditions.

 

If you would like to read more about why vaccines are important then you can do so on the NHS website.

 

Vaccines for living and working in the UK

Most children will have been given vaccines at their GP surgery or school. If you do not remember receiving vaccines, or you are not sure if you have had all of them, we strongly advise that you contact your GP and ask what vaccines you have received.

 

Which vaccines you have received will depend on factors such as age, sex and where you grew up.

 

This is a useful record to have in case you decide to go abroad or are asked about tetanus following an injury.

 

Having vaccines is your choice*, but it is important to understand that not having vaccines puts you and other people at risk.

 

(*Some courses will require you to have specific vaccines as part of your fitness to practise).

 

Infections that can be prevented through vaccination

 

Infection

Who is vaccinated?

BCG (Tuberculosis)

Risk groups, including health workers in the UK

Diphtheria

Recommended for some overseas travel

Hepatitis A

Travel, Risk Groups, and some workers

Hepatitis B

Travel, Risk Groups, and some health/prison workers

HPV (which causes Genital Warts / Cervical Cancer).

Routine for girls and only recently boys too in the UK. Also available for risk groups.

Measles

Routine in UK

Meningitis

Routine for babies now, but recommended for HE Students  

Mumps

Routine in UK

Polio

Routine in UK

Rubella

Routine in UK

Seasonal Flu

Risk groups and some workers

Tetanus

Routine in UK

Typhoid

Travel

 

Vaccinations and University Students

As well as the lists above, there are 2 vaccines which are particularly relevant to University students.

 

These are the MMR vaccine and the MenACWY vaccine. These are both available for free from your GP and you should be vaccinated before you come to University.

 

MenACWY

Meningococcal bacteria are found in the back of the throat and nose, in around 1 in 10 people. These bacteria are passed on when people cough, sneeze, kiss or share drinks, toothbrushes or cigarettes. There are four strains of bacteria that are responsible for most cases of meningitis and you can be vaccinated against these.

 

Meningitis is swelling of the membrane surrounding the brain and spinal cord, which can lead to septicaemia (blood poisoning) and result in permanent nerve and brain damage.

 

When someone develops meningitis they can become very sick, very quickly, and will need urgent medical attention. The symptoms can start like a bad flu or hangover, but they can get worse very quickly. If someone is ill and starting to get worse, call NHS Direct or your GP straight away. In an emergency, dial 999.

 

One of the most serious strains is caused by MenW bacteria. This strain has a higher death rate, and often leads to lifelong disability.

 

Before you move into halls you should have had the MenACWY vaccine. When you speak to your housemates, you should ask them whether they have had it, you could save their life.

 

You can get this vaccine for free from your GP if you are starting university for the first time and are under 25. If in doubt, you can check your eligibility on the Meningitis Research Foundation Site.

 

You can also read more about the MenACWY vaccine and why it has been introduced on Public Health Wales. If you are undecided, you can look through the videos of students talking about their experiences of having meningitis at University. Sophie is one such student, who is compelling all other students to get vaccinated after her experience. You can watch Sophie’s story here.

 

MMR Vaccine

The MMR Vaccine protects people against measles, mumps and rubella. These are potentially serious infections, and students are at risk.

 

In 2020, at many UK Universities, (Including Cardiff) there were outbreaks of mumps. Many people who grew up in the late 90’s were not given the MMR vaccine, as misinformation was spread that discouraged parents from getting the MMR vaccine for their children. Many of these people may not even know that they haven’t been vaccinated.

 

This led to a prominent increase in the infection, which in severe cases, can cause testicular problems in men, and deafness in both men and women.

 

If you are in any doubt, then you should contact your GP and ask to see your vaccination record.

 

You should have completed the MMR vaccine course before returning to University to help keep you, and other people safe.

 

Vaccinations for International Students

If you are an international student, you may not have had all the vaccinations that you need.

 

You should be vaccinated against Tetanus, Polio, Diphtheria, Tuberculosis, Meningitis (MenACWY), measles, mumps and rubella (MMR). 

 

You should contact your GP in the UK as soon as you arrive to have your vaccination record checked and to see whether you are eligible for any other vaccines.

 

You must also check whether you are required to provide a Tuberculosis Certificate. There is a list of countries on the UK Government Website which details these requirements. 

 

Vaccinations and Sexual Health

Some sexually transmitted infections can be prevented with vaccines. These include Hep A, Hep B, HPV.

 

These vaccines may only be available free for certain people, such as men who have sex with men. (MSM). By getting vaccinated, you can help to keep you and other people safe.

 

You can find out which vaccines are available by contacting your local GUM Clinic.  

 

The HPV vaccine may be available for most people (such as men who missed out when they were at school) up to your 25th birthday. You can contact your GP for further information.

 

You can read more about sexual health on our Sexual Health advice page.

 

Vaccinations for people at risk

Some groups of people deemed to be high risk may be able to receive the seasonal flu vaccine. You can read more about who is at risk on the NHS website.

 

Health and social workers may be offered the Flu vaccine, and some employers also offer this to their employees.

 

If you are working, you may like to ask your employer whether you are eligible for the seasonal flu vaccine.

 

Vaccinations for Specific Courses and Employment

Some workers and University students may be required to have vaccines. These may include health workers, prison workers, social workers, sewage workers.

 

Your University course should inform you whether you are required to be vaccinated, what these vaccines are, and how you can access these. Not being vaccinated could make you unfit to practise. If you would like further advice on this, please contact us

 

You can read about Occupational Health Requirements for Healthcare students on the University Website.

 

These vaccinations may include, BCG (TB), Hep A/B, Seasonal Flu, in addition to the other vaccines discussed above.

 

Vaccines for Overseas travel

Before travelling overseas, you must check what vaccines are required for the country you are visiting. If you are taking a transit stop, then you do not usually need vaccinations for that country, unless you are leaving the airport.

 

It is very important to plan well in advance or inform your GP as early as you can. Some vaccines are delivered in courses over a few months.

 

The best way to check which vaccines you need is on the NHS Website, Fit for Travel or Travel Health Pro. If you type in your destination on these sites, they will tell you which vaccines are required. They also provide advice on other medical conditions which you could develop in your chosen country, such as altitude sickness, malaria or other diseases.  

 

Not being vaccinated can invalidate your travel insurance. If you travel and get an infection for which a vaccination was recommended by the Foreign and Commonwealth Office, you may not be covered by travel insurance, and you could be faced with enormous medical and repatriation costs.

 

Some countries may also require to see proof that you have been vaccinated before granting you entry to that country.

 

How do I get vaccinated for travel? 

The first step is to contact your GP and explain where you a travelling and ask which vaccines you have already had.

 

Some vaccines are free, and provided by the NHS, whereas others you are required to pay for. For example;

 

Free on the NHS – These vaccines are free because the infections they cause are through to represent a high risk to the UK population;

  • Polio (Given as a combined Polio/Diphtheria/Tetanus Jab)
  • Typhoid
  • Hepatitis A
  • Cholera

 

Vaccines which you are required to pay for;

  • Hepatitis B
  • Japanese encephalitis
  • Meningitis
  • Rabies
  • Tick borne encephalitis
  • Tuberculosis
  • Yellow Fever

 

Your GP surgery should be able to tell you which vaccines you have had and whether they can offer you any vaccinations.

 

If your GP cannot provide you some vaccines which are paid for by the NHS, then they may be able to charge you to have them done as a private patient. If this is the case, you can ask how much the vaccines cost and about any other costs.

 

You may be able to get some vaccines done at your community pharmacy. You can see which pharmacies there are in your area and whether they offer travel vaccines on the Welsh NHS website.

 

Contact Student Advice

Advice@cardiff.ac.uk
+44 (0)2920 781410

 

Brechiadau a Brechlynnau

Mae brechlynnau'n ddiogel, yn effeithiol ac yn bwysig:

  • Yn ôl y GIG, brechlynnau yw'r ffordd fwyaf effeithiol o amddiffyn pobl rhag clefydau heintus ac atal hyd at 3 miliwn o farwolaethau bob blwyddyn.

  • Mae brechlynnau'n amddiffyn eich cymuned, drwy leihau'r risg o haint i bobl na all gael brechlynnau, a lleihau nifer yr heintiau.

  • Nid yw brechlynnau'n achosi awtistiaeth, alergeddau na chyflyrau eraill.

 

Os hoffech ddarllen mwy am bwysigrwydd brechlynnau, ewch i wefan y Gwasanaeth Iechyd.

 

Brechlynnau ar gyfer byw a gweithio yn y DU

Bydd y rhan fwyaf o blant wedi cael brechlynnau yn eu meddygfa neu yn yr ysgol. Os nad ydych yn cofio derbyn brechlynnau, neu os nad ydych yn siŵr a ydych wedi cael pob un ohonynt, rydym yn cynghori'n gryf eich bod yn cysylltu â'ch meddyg teulu ac yn gofyn pa frechlynnau yr ydych wedi'u derbyn.

 

Mae ffactorau fel oedran, rhyw a lle cawsoch eich magu yn effeithio ar ba frechlynnau y byddwch wedi’u derbyn.

 

Mae hwn yn gofnod defnyddiol i'w gael rhag ofn i chi benderfynu mynd dramor neu os gofynnir ichi am tetanws yn dilyn anaf.

 

Mae derbyn brechlynnau yn ddewis personol*, ond mae'n bwysig deall bod peidio cael brechlynnau yn eich rhoi chi a phobl eraill mewn perygl.

 

(*Bydd rhai cyrsiau'n gofyn i chi gael brechlynnau penodol fel rhan o'ch ffitrwydd i ymarfer).

 

Heintiau y gellir eu hatal trwy frechu

 

Haint

Pwy sydd wedi'u brechu?

BCG (Twbercwlosis)

Grwpiau risg, gan gynnwys gweithwyr iechyd yn y DU

Diphtheria

Argymhellir ar gyfer rhai teithiau tramor

Hepatitis A

Teithio, Grwpiau Risg, a rhai gweithwyr

Hepatitis B

Teithio, Grwpiau Risg, a rhai gweithwyr iechyd/carchar

HPV (sy'n achosi Dafadennau Cenhedlol / Canser Serfigol).

Y drefn arferol i ferched ac ers yn ddiweddar i fechgyn hefyd yn y DU.Hefyd ar gael ar gyfer grwpiau risg.

Y frech goch

Y drefn arferol yn y DU

Llid yr ymennydd

Y drefn arferol ar gyfer babanod nawr, ond argymhellir ar gyfer Myfyrwyr AU 

Clwy'r pennau

Y drefn arferol yn y DU

Polio

Y drefn arferol yn y DU

Rwbela

Y drefn arferol yn y DU

Ffliw Tymhorol

Grwpiau risg a rhai gweithwyr

Tetanws

Y drefn arferol yn y DU

Teiffoid

Teithio

 

Brechlynnau a Myfyrwyr Prifysgol

Yn ogystal â'r rhestrau uchod, ceir 2 frechlyn sy'n arbennig o berthnasol i fyfyrwyr Prifysgol.

 

Dyma'r brechlyn MMR a'r brechlyn MenACWY. Mae'r ddau yma ar gael am ddim gan eich meddyg teulu, a dylech gael eich brechu cyn ichi ddod i'r Brifysgol.

 

MenACWY

Gellir dod o hyd i facteria meningococaidd yng nghefn y gwddf a'r trwyn, mewn tua 1 o bob 10 o bobl. Mae'r bacteria hwn yn cael ei drosglwyddo pan mae pobl yn pesychu, tisian, cusanu neu rannu diodydd, brwsys dannedd neu sigaréts. Mae pedwar math o facteria sy'n gyfrifol am y rhan fwyaf o achosion o lid yr ymennydd, a gallwch gael brechlynnau i’ch amddiffyn rhag y rhain.

 

Mae llid yr ymennydd yn chwyddo'r bilen sy'n amgylchynu'r ymennydd a llinyn asgwrn y cefn, sy'n gallu arwain at septicaemia (gwenwyn gwaed) ac arwain at niwed parhaol i'r nerfau a'r ymennydd.

 

Pan fydd rhywun yn datblygu llid yr ymennydd, mae’n bosib iddynt fynd yn sâl iawn, yn gyflym iawn, a bydd angen sylw meddygol ar frys. Gall y symptomau ddechrau fel ffliw drwg neu hangover, ond maen nhw'n gallu gwaethygu'n gyflym iawn. Os yw rhywun yn sâl ac yn dechrau gwaethygu, ffoniwchNHS Direct neu'ch meddyg teulu ar unwaith. Mewn argyfwng, ffoniwch 999.

 

Achosir un o'r straeniau mwyaf difrifol gan facteria MenW. Mae gan y straen hwn gyfradd marwolaeth uwch, ac mae'n aml yn arwain at anabledd gydol oes.

 

Cyn i chi symud i neuaddau preswyl dylech fod wedi cael y brechlyn MenACWY. Pan fyddwch chi'n siarad â'ch ffrindiau tŷ, dylech ofyn os ydynt wedi ei dderbyn, fe allech chi achub eu bywyd.

 

Gallwch gael y brechlyn hwn am ddim gan eich meddyg teulu os ydych chi'n dechrau'r brifysgol am y tro cyntaf ac o dan 25 oed. Os oes gennych unrhyw amheuaeth, gallwch wirio'ch cymhwysedd ar Wefan Sefydliad Ymchwil Meningitis.

 

Gallwch hefyd ddarllen mwy am y brechlyn MenACWY a pham ei fod wedi'i gyflwyno ar Iechyd Cyhoeddus Cymru. Os nad ydych yn ansicr, gallwch edrych ar y fideos o fyfyrwyr yn sôn am eu profiadau o gael llid yr ymennydd yn y Brifysgol. Mae Sophie yn un ohonynt, sy'n cymell pob myfyriwr arall i gael eu brechu ar ôl ei phrofiad hi. Gallwch wylio stori Sophie yma.

 

Brechlyn MMR

Mae'r Brechlyn MMR yn amddiffyn pobl rhag y frech goch, clwy'r pennau a rwbela. Mae'r rhain yn heintiau a allai fod yn beryglus, ac mae myfyrwyr mewn perygl.

 

Yn 2020, mewn nifer o Brifysgolion yn y DU, (gan gynnwys Caerdydd) roedd achosion o glwy'r pennau. Ni chafodd llawer o bobl a gafodd eu magu ar ddiwedd y 90au y brechlyn MMR, o ganlyniad i wybodaeth anghywir yn cael ei lledaenu a oedd yn annog rhieni i beidio â chaniatáu i’w plant dderbyn y brechlyn. Efallai na fydd llawer o'r bobl hyn hyd yn oed yn gwybod nad ydyn nhw wedi cael eu brechu.

 

Arweiniodd hyn at gynnydd amlwg yn yr haint sydd, mewn achosion difrifol, yn gallu achosi problemau gyda'r ceilliau mewn dynion, a byddardod mewn dynion a menywod.

 

Os oes gennych unrhyw amheuaeth, yna dylech gysylltu â'ch meddyg teulu a gofyn am gael gweld eich cofnod brechu.

 

Dylech fod wedi cwblhau'r cwrs brechlyn MMR cyn dychwelyd i'r Brifysgol i'ch helpu i'ch cadw chi, a phobl eraill yn ddiogel.

 

Brechiadau i Fyfyrwyr Rhyngwladol

Os ydych chi'n fyfyriwr rhyngwladol, efallai nad ydych chi wedi cael yr holl frechiadau sydd eu hangen arnoch.

 

Dylech gael eich brechu yn erbyn Tetanws, Polio, Diphtheria, Twbercwlosis, Llid yr ymennydd (MenACWY), y frech goch, clwy'r pennau a rwbela (MMR).  

 

Dylech gysylltu â'ch meddyg teulu yn y DU cyn gynted ag y byddwch yn cyrraedd i gael gwirio eich cofnod brechu ac i weld a ydych yn gymwys i gael unrhyw frechiadau eraill.

 

Rhaid i chi hefyd wirio a oes gofyn i chi ddarparu Tystysgrif Twbercwlosis. Mae rhestr o wledydd ar Wefan Llywodraeth y DU sy'n manylu ar y gofynion hyn.  

 

Brechiadau a Iechyd Rhywiol

Gellir atal rhai heintiau a drosglwyddir yn rhywiol gyda brechlynnau. Mae'r rhain yn cynnwys Hep A, Hep B, HPV.

 

Mae'n bosib mai dim ond i rai pobl benodol y gallai'r brechlynnau hyn fod ar gael, fel dynion sy'n cael rhyw gyda dynion. (MSM). Wrth gael eich brechu, gallwch helpu i'ch cadw chi a phobl eraill yn ddiogel.

 

Gallwch weld pa frechlynnau sydd ar gael trwy gysylltu â'ch Clinig GUM lleol .

 

Gall y brechlyn HPV fod ar gael i'r rhan fwyaf o bobl (fel dynion a gollodd allan pan oedden nhw yn yr ysgol) hyd at eich pen-blwydd yn 25 oed. Gallwch gysylltu â'ch meddyg teulu am ragor o wybodaeth.

 

Gallwch ddarllen mwy am iechyd rhywiol ar ein tudalen cyngor Iechyd Rhywiol.

 

Brechiadau i bobl sy'n wynebu risg

Efallai y bydd rhai grwpiau o bobl yr ystyrir eu bod yn risg uchel yn gallu derbyn y brechlyn ffliw tymhorol. Gallwch ddarllen mwy am bwy sydd mewn perygl ar ar wefan y GIG.

 

Mae'n bosib y bydd gweithwyr iechyd a chymdeithasol yn cael cynnig y brechlyn ffliw, ac mae rhai cyflogwyr hefyd yn ei gynnig i'w gweithwyr.

 

Os ydych yn gweithio, efallai yr hoffech ofyn i'ch cyflogwr a ydych yn gymwys i gael y brechlyn ffliw tymhorol.

 

Brechiadau ar gyfer Cyrsiau Penodol a Chyflogaeth

Efallai y bydd gofyn i rai gweithwyr a myfyrwyr Prifysgol gael brechlynnau. Gall y rhain gynnwys gweithwyr iechyd, gweithwyr carchar, gweithwyr cymdeithasol, gweithwyr carthion.

 

Dylai eich cwrs Prifysgol eich hysbysu a oes angen i chi gael eich brechu, beth yw'r brechlynnau hyn, a sut y gallwch gael mynediad at y rhain. Gallai peidio â chael eich brechu eich gwneud yn anaddas i ymarfer. Os hoffech ragor o gyngor ar hyn, cysylltwch â ni

 

Gallwch ddarllen am Ofynion Iechyd Galwedigaethol i fyfyrwyr Gofal Iechyd ar Wefan y Brifysgol.

 

Gall y brechiadau hyn gynnwys, BCG (TB), Hep A/B, Ffliw Tymhorol, yn ogystal â'r brechlynnau eraill a drafodir uchod.

 

Brechlynnau i deithio dramor

Cyn teithio dramor, rhaid i chi wirio pa frechlynnau sydd eu hangen ar gyfer y wlad benodol. Os ydych chi'n cymryd stop tramwy, yna nid oes angen brechiadau ar gyfer y wlad honno fel arfer, oni bai eich bod yn gadael y maes awyr.

 

Mae'n bwysig iawn cynllunio ymhell o flaen llaw neu roi gwybod i'ch meddyg teulu mor gynnar ag y gallwch. Mae rhai brechlynnau yn cael eu darparu mewn cyrsiau dros ychydig fisoedd.

 

Y ffordd orau o wirio pa frechlynnau sydd eu hangen arnoch yw ar Wefan y GIG, Fit for Travel neu Travel Health Pro. Os byddwch yn chwilio am eich cyrchfan ar y safleoedd hyn, byddant yn dweud wrthych pa frechlynnau sydd eu hangen. Maent hefyd yn rhoi cyngor ar gyflyrau meddygol eraill y gallech eu datblygu yn eich gwlad ddewisol, megis salwch uchder, malaria neu glefydau eraill.  

 

Gall peidio â chael eich brechu annilysu eich yswiriant teithio. Os ydych yn teithio ac yn cael haint a argymhellir brechlyn ar ei gyfer gan y wyddfa Dramor a Chymanwlad, efallai na fyddwch yn dod o dan yswiriant teithio, a gallech wynebu costau meddygol a theithio enfawr.

 

Efallai y bydd angen i rai gwledydd hefyd weld prawf eich bod wedi cael eich brechu cyn ichi gael mynediad i’r wlad.

 

Sut i gael fy mrechu ar gyfer teithio?  

Y cam cyntaf yw cysylltu â'ch meddyg teulu ac egluro i ble rydych chi'n teithio a gofyn pa frechlynnau rydych chi eisoes wedi'u cael.

 

Mae rhai brechlynnau am ddim, ac yn cael eu darparu gan y GIG, tra bod eraill sydd angen i chi dalu amdanynt. Er enghraifft;

 

Am ddim ar y GIG – Mae'r brechlynnau hyn yn rhad ac am ddim oherwydd bod yr heintiau yn achosi risg uchel i boblogaeth y DU;

  • Polio (Wedi'i roi fel jab cyfun Polio/Diphtheria/Tetanus)
  • Teiffoid
  • Hepatitis A
  • Colera

 

Brechlynnau sydd angen ichi dalu amdanynt;

  • Hepatitis B
  • Enseffalitis Japaneaidd
  • Llid yr ymennydd
  • Y gynddaredd
  • Enseffalitis a achosir gan drogod
  • Twbercwlosis
  • Twymyn Melyn

 

Dylai eich meddygfa allu dweud wrthych pa frechlynnau rydych wedi'u cael ac os oes modd iddynt gynnig unrhyw frechiadau i chi.

 

Os na all eich meddyg teulu ddarparu rhai brechlynnau i chi sy'n cael eu talu amdanynt gan y GIG, yna mae'n bosib y gallant godi tâl arnoch i'w gwneud fel claf preifat. Os felly, gallwch ofyn faint mae'r brechlynnau'n ei gostio ac am unrhyw gostau eraill.

 

Efallai y byddwch yn gallu cael rhai brechlynnau yn eich fferyllfa gymunedol. Gallwch weld pa fferyllfeydd sydd yn eich ardal chi ac os ydynt yn cynnig brechlynnau teithio ar wefan GIG Cymru.

 

Cysylltu â Chyngor i Fyfyrwyr

Advice@caerdydd.ac.uk
+44 (0)2920 781410