Cymraeg

Claiming Compensation

You may be able to claim compensation (or ask for a partial fee refund) from the University if they have failed in their obligations to you and have not, or are unable to, put this right in another way.

Your ability to claim compensation comes in most cases from your contract with the University. Although not everyone sees it this way, your relationship with the University is essentially a contractual one and, as you are an individual agreeing a contract with a business, it is a consumer contract. This is important because it gives you additional rights under consumer protection legislation.

What can you Claim Compensation For?

You can claim compensation for breach of contract and/or if the University have misrepresented the contract to you. More detailed information is available on our Student Consumer Contract page but, basically, you can claim compensation as either a common law or statutory remedy.

Common Law Remedies

The common law also allows you to argue a claim for damages (compensation). The common law comes from a vast history of decisions made by judges that have become legally binding, even though they are not written in statute.

The general principle behind an award of damages for breach of contract is to put the victim of the breach, so far as money can do so, in the position they would have been in had the contract been properly performed (Robinson v Harman (1848)).

There are two elements that can be claimed for (Hadley v. Baxendale (1854)):

  • Losses that arise naturally from the breach in the usual course of things;
  • Losses which ought to have been in the contemplation of the parties at the time the contract was formed.

Statutory Remedies

Statutory remedies are those that are written in an Act of Parliament (statute). If the University are found to be in breach of contract, the Consumer Rights Act 2015 says that you are entitled to

  • Repeat performance at the University’s cost, provided that it is possible for the University to do so within a reasonable time;
  • A reduction in price. In practice this means a proportionate refund, depending on the seriousness of the breach. It can be a full refund if the breach is serious enough and repeat performance is not a realistic option.

How much can I claim?

How much you can claim depends on how much you have lost because of the University's failings. You will normally be expected to quantify your loss and show that it was caused by the University.

Quantifying your claim can be difficult but you can look through previous Office of the Independent Adjudicator (OIA) case summaries to get an idea of the kind of amounts they find reasonable. It is important to get an idea of what the OIA find reasonable because they are the ombuds body you will be complaining to if you are unhappy with the University complaint outcome.

  • For claims relating to loss of future earnings, the OIA will take into consideration that we any recommend lump sum payment will not be subject to the same tax and National Insurance deductions that earnings would have been.
  • For claims relating to distress and inconvenience, the OIA will recommend up to £500 if they deem the level of distress and inconvenience as moderate, between £501 and £2000 if they deem it substantial and between £2001 and £5000 if they deem it severe. In exceptional cases they may recommend over £5000. Further information on how the OIA define moderate, substantial and severe is available here.
  • Compensation for failure to make up for missed learning content or failure to deliver learning outcomes is dealt with on the basis of refunding tuition fees. This is calculated based on 'notional cost of the teaching hours missed, reduced by a percentage to take into account that providers must also provide and maintain facilities, infrastructure, administration and other student services' In the OIA Coronavirus Case - CS112009, this reduction was 30%.
  • If the OIA recommend a fee refund, they normally recommend that the provider returns the money to the source it came from, for instance, the Student Loans Company.

OIA Position on Coronavirus and Tuition Fee Refunds

Importantly, in terms of changes made to courses, the OIA briefing note 2: Our approach to complaints arising from the effects of coronavirus (COVID-19) - June 2020 states that

What students can reasonably expect, and what providers can reasonably be expected to deliver, is likely to change and evolve as circumstances change and evolve, especially if restrictions are tightened again. But providers should be planning to deliver what was promised - or something at least broadly equivalent to it - and to ensure that learning outcomes can be met. It’s unlikely to be reasonable not to do that, especially now the initial crisis period has passed.

Where providers have not or decide they cannot deliver what was promised they will need to consider how to put that right. A blanket refusal to consider tuition fee refunds in any circumstances is not reasonable. There may be groups of students that are particularly affected, and providers should take steps to identify those groups and address their issues. But they also need to consider concerns raised by students about their individual circumstances.

There are examples of decisions made by the OIA in relation to issues around Coronavirus available on the OIA website here. Importantly, the OIA decisions seem to show that:

  • a complaint and refund request based solely on the fact that teaching is remote is unlikely to be upheld. This case was found NOT JUSTIFIED because the student had not been academically disadvantaged, could meet their learning outcomes and progress with their studies.
  • compensation may be recommended where the university has failed to ensure that a student can meet the learning outcomes in any module(s). This case was found PARTLY JUSTIFIED because the university had failed to mitigate the disruption to a student's learning experience in one particular module and had not ensured that the delivery of the module was broadly equivalent to its usual arrangements.

How to Claim Compensation/Fee Refund

The first thing you will need to do if you are having issues with the quality of your teaching, is submit a complaint using the Student Complaint Procedure. If you are looking to claim money from the University you will need to make sure your argument is as strong and as compelling as possible. You will also need to get as much evidence as possible to support what you say.

Do some research, find the learning outcomes for your programme and identify any that are not being met. The learning outcomes for your programme are available through SIMS online and set out what you should know, understand or be able to do when you have completed a learning activity or your programme of study. Look at the University’s obligations under your contract and identify where they have failed (further information on this point is available on our Student Consumer Contract page).

  • The University Complaints Procedure. In the first instance, you will usually be expected to raise your concerns through the University's Complaints Procedure. This Procedure allows for practical remedies (immediately addressing the quality of online lectures or changing supervisor) and financial remedies (compensation). You will always have to exhaust the University's internal processes before you can approach the OIA and you will usually be expected to have taken steps to try and resolve any issues before taking legal action. Further information and advice on how to raise a complaint is available on our Complaints Procedure webpage. You will see here that you are normally expected to raise any issue at the time and give the University the opportunity to put things right in a practical way first.
  • The OIA. If, after exhausting the University's internal procedures, you are unhappy with the outcome, you can complain to the OIA. Further information on how to do so is available on our OIA Complaints webpage.
  • Make a court claim for money. If you are not happy with the outcome of the OIA complaint, you can consider making a claim to the court for either a common law or statutory remedy (as explained above). Quantifying the amount of your claim can be difficult and you may want to seek legal advice. If you are claiming for a breach of contract you will need to show that the losses you are claiming for were caused by the breach and were reasonably foreseeable. If you are claiming for a specific amount, you can claim online. If you want to ask a judge to decide the amount, you will need to complete a paper form, which is a more expensive route. Further information on how to claim and what and when you need to pay is available on Gov.uk.

Contact Student Advice

Advice@cardiff.ac.uk
+44 (0)2920 781410

 


Hawlio Iawndal

Mae’n bosib y gallwch hawlio iawndal (neu ofyn am ad-daliad rhannol) gan y Brifysgol os nad ydynt wedi cyflawni eu rhwymedigaethau ac nad ydynt wedi, neu’n methu â gwneud iawn, mewn ffordd arall.

Daw eich gallu i hawlio iawndal yn y rhan fwyaf o achosion o'ch contract gyda'r Brifysgol. Er nad yw pawb yn meddwl amdano fel hyn, mae eich perthynas â’r Brifysgol yn gytundeb a gan eich bod yn unigolyn sydd wedi cytuno i'r contract, mae’n gontract defnyddiwr. Mae hyn yn bwysig oherwydd ei fod yn cynnig hawliau ychwanegol i chi o dan ddeddfwriaeth diogelu defnyddwyr.

Am beth allwch chi hawlio iawndal?

Gallwch hawlio iawndal am dorri contract a/neu os yw’r Brifysgol wedi cynrychioli'r contract yn gamarweiniol i chi. Mae gwybodaeth fanylach ar gael ar ein tudalen Contract Defnyddwyr Myfyrwyr ond, yn y bôn, gallwch hawlio iawndal naill ai fel rhwymedi cyfraith gyffredin neu fel rhwymedi statudol.

Rhwymedi Cyfraith Gyffredin

Mae’r gyfraith gyffredin hefyd yn caniatáu i chi ddadlau am iawndal. Daw’r gyfraith gyffredin o hanes hir iawn o benderfyniadau a wnaed gan farnwyr sydd wedi dod yn gyfreithiol rwymol, er nad ydynt wedi’u hysgrifennu mewn statud.

Yr egwyddor gyffredinol y tu ôl i ddyfarnu iawndal am dor-cytundeb yw rhoi'r dioddefwr, cyn belled ag y gall arian wneud hynny, yn y sefyllfa y byddai wedi bod ynddi pe bai’r contract wedi’i gyflawni’n gywir (Robinson v Harman (1848)).

Mae dwy elfen y gellir hawlio amdanynt (Hadley v. Baxendale (1854)):

  • Colledion sy'n codi'n naturiol o'r toriad yng nghwrs arferol pethau;
  • Colledion a ddylai fod wedi bod o fewn disgwyliadau'r partïon ar yr adeg y ffurfiwyd y contract.

Rhwymedi Statudol

Mae rhwymedi statudol wedi'u hysgrifennu mewn Deddf Seneddol (statud). Os canfyddir bod y Brifysgol wedi torri contract, yn ôl Deddf Hawliau Defnyddwyr 2015 mae gennych hawl i:

  • dderbyn ail-berfformiad ar gost y Brifysgol, ar yr amod ei bod yn bosibl i'r Brifysgol wneud hynny o fewn amser rhesymol;
  • ostyngiad pris. Yn ymarferol mae hyn yn golygu ad-daliad cymesur, yn dibynnu ar ddifrifoldeb y toriad. Gall fod yn ad-daliad llawn os yw'r toriad yn ddigon difrifol ac nad yw ail-berfformiad yn opsiwn realistig.

Faint y gallaf ei hawlio?

Mae faint y gallwch ei hawlio yn dibynnu ar faint rydych wedi'i golli oherwydd methiannau'r Brifysgol. Fel arfer bydd disgwyl i chi fesur eich colled a dangos mai'r Brifysgol oedd wedi ei hachosi.

Gall fod yn anodd meintioli eich hawliad ond gallwch edrych trwy grynodebau achosion blaenorol o Swyddfa’r Dyfarnwr Annibynnol (OIA) i gael syniad o'r math o symiau sy'n rhesymol. Mae'n bwysig cael syniad o'r hyn y mae'r OIA yn ei ystyried yn rhesymol oherwydd dyma'r corff ombwds y byddwch yn cwyno iddo os ydych yn anhapus â chanlyniad cwyn y Brifysgol.

  • Ar gyfer hawliadau sy'n ymwneud â cholli enillion yn y dyfodol, bydd yr OIA ystyried ein bod yn argymell na fydd cyfandaliad yn destun yr un didyniadau treth ac Yswiriant Gwladol ag y byddai enillion wedi bod.
  • Ar gyfer hawliadau sy’n ymwneud â thrallod ac anghyfleustra, bydd yr OIA yn argymell hyd at £500 os yw’n ystyried bod lefel y trallod ac anhwylustod yn gymedrol, rhwng £501 a £2000 os yw’n ystyried ei fod yn sylweddol a rhwng £2001 a £5000 os yn ddifrifol. Mewn achosion eithriadol gallant argymell dros £5000. Mae rhagor o wybodaeth am sut mae'r OIA yn diffinio cymedrol, sylweddol a difrifol ar gael yma.
  • Ymdrinnir ag iawndal am fethiant i wneud iawn am golli cynnwys dysgu neu fethiant i gyflawni canlyniadau dysgu ar sail ad-dalu ffioedd dysgu. Mae hyn yn cael ei gyfrifo ar sail 'cost dybiannol yr oriau addysgu a gollwyd, wedi'i leihau gan ganran i gymryd i ystyriaeth bod yn rhaid i ddarparwyr hefyd ddarparu a chynnal cyfleusterau, seilwaith, gweinyddiaeth a gwasanaethau myfyrwyr eraill'. Yn yr Achos Coronafeirws OIA - CS112009, y gostyngiad hwn oedd 30%.
  • Os bydd yr OIA yn argymell ad-daliad ffi, mae fel arfer yn argymell bod y darparwr yn dychwelyd yr arian i'r ffynhonnell y daeth ohoni, er enghraifft, y Cwmni Benthyciadau Myfyrwyr.

Safbwynt yr OIA ar Coronafeirws ac Ad-daliadau Ffioedd Dysgu

Yn bwysig, o ran y newidiadau a wneir i gyrsiau, mae Nodyn briffio 2 yr OIA: Ein hagwedd at gwynion yn deillio o effeithiau coronafeirws (COVID-19) - Mehefin 2020 yn datgan:

Mae'n debygol y gall yr hyn mae myfyrwyr ei ddisgwyl yn rhesymol, a’r hyn y gellir yn rhesymol ddisgwyl i ddarparwyr ei gyflawni, newid ac esblygu wrth i amgylchiadau newid ac esblygu, yn enwedig os caiff cyfyngiadau eu tynhau eto. Ond dylai darparwyr fod yn cynllunio i gyflawni'r hyn a addawyd - neu rywbeth sydd o leiaf yn cyfateb yn fras iddo - a sicrhau y gellir cyflawni canlyniadau dysgu. Mae'n debyg bod peidio gwneud hynny'n cael ei hystyried yn anrhesymol, yn enwedig nawr bod y cyfnod argyfwng cychwynnol wedi pasio.

Lle nad yw darparwyr wedi cyflawni’r hyn a addawyd neu’n penderfynu na allant wneud hynny, bydd angen iddynt ystyried sut i unioni hynny. Nid yw gwrthodiad cyffredinol i ystyried ad-daliadau ffioedd dysgu yn rhesymol o dan unrhyw amgylchiadau. Efallai y bydd grwpiau o fyfyrwyr yn cael eu heffeithio’n fwy nag eraill, a dylai darparwyr gymryd camau i nodi’r grwpiau hynny a mynd i’r afael â’u problemau. Ond mae angen iddynt hefyd ystyried pryderon a godwyd gan fyfyrwyr am eu hamgylchiadau unigol.

Mae enghreifftiau o benderfyniadau a wnaed gan yr OIA mewn perthynas â materion yn ymwneud â’r Coronafeirws ar gael ar wefan yr OIA yma. Yn bwysig, ymddengys fod penderfyniadau’r OIA yn dangos:

  • mae'n annhebygol y caiff cwyn a chais am ad-daliad sy'n seiliedig yn unig ar y ffaith bod addysgu o bell, yn llwyddiannus. Canfuwyd bod yr achos hwn yn AFLWYDDIANNUS oherwydd nad oedd y myfyriwr wedi bod o dan anfantais academaidd, y gallai gyflawni ei ddeilliannau dysgu a symud ymlaen â'i astudiaethau.
  • Gellir argymell iawndal os yw'r brifysgol wedi methu â sicrhau y gall myfyriwr fodloni'r canlyniadau dysgu mewn unrhyw fodiwl(au). Canfuwyd bod yr achos hwn YN RHANNOL LLWYDDIANNUS oherwydd bod y brifysgol wedi methu â lliniaru'r amhariad ar brofiad dysgu myfyriwr mewn un modiwl penodol ac nad oedd wedi sicrhau bod cyflwyniad y modiwl yn cyfateb i'w threfniadau arferol.

Sut i Hawlio Iawndal/Ad-daliad Ffi Dysgu

Y peth cyntaf y bydd angen i chi ei wneud os ydych yn cael problemau gydag ansawdd eich addysgu, yw cyflwyno cwyn gan ddefnyddio'r Weithdrefn Gwyno Myfyrwyr. Os ydych yn bwriadu hawlio arian gan y Brifysgol bydd angen i chi sicrhau bod eich dadl mor gryf ac mor gymhellol â phosibl. Bydd angen i chi hefyd gael cymaint o dystiolaeth â phosibl i gefnogi'r hyn a ddywedwch.

Gwnewch ychydig o waith ymchwil, dewch o hyd i'r canlyniadau dysgu ar gyfer eich rhaglen a nodwch unrhyw rai nad ydynt yn cael eu bodloni. Mae’r canlyniadau dysgu ar gyfer eich rhaglen ar gael trwy SIMS ar-lein ac maent yn nodi’r hyn y dylech ei wybod, ei ddeall neu allu ei wneud pan fyddwch wedi cwblhau gweithgaredd dysgu neu’ch rhaglen astudio. Edrychwch ar rwymedigaethau’r Brifysgol o dan eich contract a nodwch lle maent wedi methu (mae rhagor o wybodaeth am y pwynt hwn ar gael ar ein tudalen Contract Myfyrwyr).

  • Trefn Gwyno'r Brifysgol. Yn y lle cyntaf, fel arfer bydd disgwyl i chi adrodd eich pryderon trwy Weithdrefn Gwyno'r Brifysgol. Mae'r Weithdrefn hon yn caniatáu atebion ymarferol (sy'n mynd i'r afael ar unwaith ag ansawdd darlithoedd ar-lein neu newid goruchwyliwr) a rhwymedïau ariannol (iawndal). Bydd yn rhaid i chi bob amser ddihysbyddu prosesau mewnol y Brifysgol cyn y gallwch fynd at yr OIA ac fel arfer bydd disgwyl i chi fod wedi cymryd camau i geisio datrys unrhyw faterion cyn cymryd camau cyfreithiol. Mae rhagor o wybodaeth a chyngor ar sut i wneud cwyn ar gael ar ein tudalen Trefn Gwyno. Fe welwch yma y disgwylir i chi fel arfer godi unrhyw fater ar y pryd a rhoi cyfle i’r Brifysgol unioni pethau mewn ffordd ymarferol yn gyntaf.
  • Yr OIA. Os ydych, ar ôl dihysbyddu gweithdrefnau mewnol y Brifysgol, yn anhapus â'r canlyniad, gallwch gwyno i'r OIA. Mae rhagor o wybodaeth am sut i wneud hynny ar gael ar ein tudalen Cwynion OIA.
  • Gwneud hawliad llys am arian. Os nad ydych yn hapus â chanlyniad cwyn yr OIA, gallwch ystyried gwneud hawliad i’r llys naill ai am rwymedi cyfraith gwlad neu rwymedi statudol (fel yr eglurir uchod). Gall fod yn anodd mesur swm eich hawliad ac efallai y byddwch am geisio cyngor cyfreithiol. Os ydych yn hawlio am dor-cytundeb bydd angen i chi ddangos bod y colledion yr ydych yn hawlio amdanynt wedi’u hachosi gan y toriad a’u bod yn rhesymol ragweladwy. Os ydych yn hawlio am swm penodol, gallwch wneud cais ar-lein. Os ydych am ofyn i farnwr benderfynu ar y swm, bydd angen i chi lenwi ffurflen bapur, sy'n ddrutach. Mae rhagor o wybodaeth am sut i hawlio a beth a phryd y mae angen i chi ei dalu ar gael ar Gov.uk.

Cysylltwch â Cyngor i Fyfyrwyr

Advice@cardiff.ac.uk
+44 (0)2920 781410

 

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